Seti

Embed from Getty Images

The administrative zone Seti is located in Western Nepal. Seti is composed of five districts: Bajhang, Bajura, Doti, Achham, and Kailali. Seti is part of the Far Western development region, which spreads over Terai, Hill and Mountain territories. Since the new constitution implemented in 2015, Nepal is a federal state divided into seven provinces. Seti is part of Province No. 7.

Demographics:

1,557,003 people live in Seti. The most populated district is Kailali with 775,709 (378,417 men and 397,292 women) inhabitants.  257,477 people (120,008 men and 137,469 women) live in Achham; 211,746 people (97,252 men and 114,494 women) live in Doti; 195,159 (92,794 men and 102,365 women) people live in Bajhang; and 134,912 (65,806 men and 69,106 women) people live in Bajura.

Figures for the Seti administrative zone are not available, but the Central Bureau of Statistics of Nepal provides data for the Far Western development region of which Seti is part.

In 2015, in the Far Western development region, out of  2,552,517 people, 2,481,805 were Hindus, 27,806 were Christians (mainly living in Kailali district), 27,303 were Buddhists (mainly living in Kailali district), 5,961 were Muslims, and 5,685 were Prakritis.

In 2010, the main ethnicities represented in the Far western population were Chetree, with above 1 million people from this descent, Tharu, with above 400,000 people from this descent, and Brahman, with above 300,000 people from this descent.  

The main languages spoken in 2010 were Nepali, Tharu, and Doteli.

The literacy rate was 54.1 percent in 2008.  

 

Economics:

The Far Western development region, of which Seti is part, contributes very little to Nepal’s foreign trade. It accounts for 0.8 percent of Nepal’s exports and 0.898 percent of its imports.

In 2010, the mean income per household was 144,030 Nepalese Rupees and the mean income per capita was NRs 28,584.

The unemployment rate in 2010 was 1.6 percent.  

The poverty rate in 2008 was 45.61 percent.  

The Far Western development region is mainly agricultural. Out of 954,636 workers, 728,701 are employed in the agriculture sector, 30,718 in manufacturing, and 39,079 in wholesale and retail trade. 90.1 percent of households of the region were involved in agricultural activities in 2010. 85 percent of them cultivated paddy, 89 percent wheat and 85.2 percent maize.

In 2008, 35.2 percent of the population had migrated out of the region. This migration induced a large scope of remittances. In 2010, 60 percent of households received remittances. The share of remittances on their income was 26.6 percent.

Seti’s has been the focus of development efforts by the Nepalese government. An integrated development scheme will be implemented in Province no. 7, of which Seti is part, to improve development in many areas, ranging from health to tourism.

 

Politics:

In the latest local elections, the Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist (CPN-UML) won a short majority of seats in Province no. 7, with 39 seats compared to 38 for the Nepali Congress. In the Seti zone, the CPN-UML won in Bahjang, Doti and Kailali districts, while the Nepali Congress won in Bajura and Accham districts. These elections marked a shift for the Nepali Congress, which lost in a region where it usually wielded a certain influence.

 

Further readings:

Mahendra Lawoti, Susan Hangen (2013) Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict in Nepal: Identities and Mobilization After 1990, Routledge

V. R. Raghavan (2013) Nepal as a Federal State: Lessons from Indian Experience, Vij Books India Pvt Ltd

John Whelpton (2005) A History of Nepal, Cambridge University Press

Mahakali

Embed from Getty Images

The administrative zone Mahakali is located in Western Nepal, and borders India. Mahakali is composed of four districts: Darchula, Baitadi, Dadeldura and Kanchanpur. Mahakali is part of the Far Western development region, which spreads over Terai, Hill and Mountain territories. Since the new constitution implemented in 2015, Nepal is a federal state divided into seven provinces. Mahakali is part of Province No. 7.

 

Demographics:

977,514 people live in Mahakali. The most populated district is Kanchanpur with 451,248 (216,042 men and 235,206 women) inhabitants. 250,898 (117,407 men and 133,491 women) people live in Baitadi; 142,094 (66,556 men and 75,538 women) people live in Dadeldura; and 133,274 (63,605 men and 69,669 women) people live in Darchula.

Figures for the Mahakali administrative zone are not available, but the Central Bureau of Statistics of Nepal provides data for the widest Far Western development region of which Mahakali is part.

In 2015, in the Far Western development region, out of 2,552,517 people, 2,481,805 were Hindus, 27,806 were Christians (mainly living in Kanchanpur district), 27,303 were Buddhists (mainly living in Kanchanpur district), 5,961 were Muslims, and 5,685 were Prakritis.

In 2010, the main ethnicities represented in the Far western population were Chetree, with above 1 million people from this descent, Tharu, with above 400,000 people from this descent, and Brahman, with above 300,000 people from this descent.  

The main languages spoken in 2010 were Nepali, Tharu, and Doteli.

The literacy rate was 54.1 percent in 2008.  

 

Economics:

The Far Western development region, of which Mahakali is part, contributes very little to Nepal’s foreign trade. It accounts for 0.8 percent of Nepal’s exports and 0.898 percent of its imports.

In 2010, the mean income per household was 144,030 Nepalese Rupees and the mean income per capita was NRs 28,584.

The unemployment rate in 2010 was 1.6 percent.  

The poverty rate in 2008 was 45.61 percent.  

The Far Western development region is mainly agricultural. Out of 954,636 workers, 728,701 are employed in the agriculture sector, 30,718 in manufacturing, and 39,079 in wholesale and retail trade. 90.1 percent of households of the region were involved in agricultural activities in 2010. 85 percent of them cultivated paddy, 89 percent wheat and 85.2 percent maize.

In 2008, 35.2 percent of the population had migrated out of the region. This migration has induced a large scope of remittances. In 2010, 60 percent of households received remittances. The share of remittances on their income was 26.6 percent.

Mahakali’s economic and social situation is to progress. An integrated development scheme will be implemented in Province no. 7, of which Mahakali is part, to improve development in many areas, ranging from health to tourism.

 

Politics:

In the latest local elections, the Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist (CPN-UML) won a short majority of seats in Province no. 7, with 39 seats compared to 38 for the Nepali Congress. In the Makahali zone, the CPN-UML won in Kanchanpur, while the Nepali Congress won in Darchula, Baitadi, and Dadeldura districts. These elections marked a shift for the Nepali Congress, which lost in a region where it usually wielded a certain influence.

 

Further readings:

Mahendra Lawoti, Susan Hangen (2013) Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict in Nepal: Identities and Mobilization After 1990, Routledge

V. R. Raghavan (2013) Nepal as a Federal State: Lessons from Indian Experience, Vij Books India Pvt Ltd

John Whelpton (2005) A History of Nepal, Cambridge University Press

Janakpur

Embed from Getty Images

The administrative zone Janakpur is located in mid-Eastern Nepal. Janakpur is composed of six districts: Dolakha, Ramechhap, Sindhuli, Sarlahi, Mahottari, and Dhanusa. Janakpur is part of the Central development region, which spreads over Terai, Hill and Mountain territories. Since the new constitution implemented in 2015, Nepal is a federal state divided into seven provinces. Janakpur has been divided in the process. Its districts are part of two different federal states: Province no. 3 for Dolakha, Ramechhap, and Sindhuli districts; and Province no. 2 for Sarlahi, Mahottari, and Dhanusa districts.

 

Demographics

2,837,841 people live in Janakpur. The most populated districts are Sarlahi with 769,729 (389,756 men and 379,973 women) inhabitants and Dhanusa with 754,777 (378,538 men and 376,239 women) inhabitants. 627,580 (311,016 men and 316,564 women) people live in Mahottari; 296,192 (142,123 men and 154,069 women) people live in Sindhuli; 202,646 (93,386 men and 109,260 women) people live in Ramechhap; and 186,557 (87,003 men and 99,554 women) live in Dolakha.  

Figures for the Janakpur administrative zone are not available, but the Central Bureau of Statistics of Nepal provides data for the widest Central development region of which Janakpur is part.

In 2015, in the Central development region, out of 9,656,985 people, 7,426,280 were Hindus, 1,409,265 were Buddhists, 556,464 were Muslims (mainly living in Sarlahi, Mahottari and Dhanusa districts), and 165,569 were Christians.

In 2010, the main ethnicities represented in the Central population were Chetree, Brahman and Tamang with above 1 million people from these descents respectively, and Newar, Musalman and Yadar, with above 500,000 people from these descents respectively.

The main languages spoken in 2010 were Nepali, Maithili, Bhojpuri, Tharu and Tamang.

The literacy rate was 55.1 percent in 2008.  

 

Economics:

The Central development region, of which Janakpur is part, contributes a lot to Nepal’s foreign trade. It accounts for 52.7 percent of Nepal’s exports and 66.88 percent of its imports.

In 2010, the mean income per household was 238,107 Nepalese Rupees and the mean income per capita was NRs 49,128.

The unemployment rate in 2010 was 3.2 percent.  

The poverty rate in 2008 was 21.69 percent.  

Though the Central development region is mainly agricultural like all Nepali regions, its employment sector is more diversified. Out of 3,467,889 workers, 1,867,500 are employed in the agriculture sector, 270,271 in manufacturing, 325,727 in wholesale and retail trade, 129,202 in construction and 104,120 in transport. Compared to the rest of Nepal, only 64.1 percent of households of the region were involved in agricultural activities in 2010. 74.4 percent of them cultivated paddy, 50.8 percent wheat and 51 percent maize.

In 2008, 34.1 percent of the population had migrated out of the region. This migration induced a large scope of remittances. In 2010, 49.5 percent of households received remittances. The share of remittances on their income was 32.3 percent.

 

Politics:

In the latest local elections, the Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist (CPN-UML) won a majority of seats in Province no. 3, with 64 seats compared to 35 for the Nepali Congress. In the Janakpur zone, the CPN-UML won in Dolkha and Ramechhap districts, while the Nepali Congress and the Maoist Kendra won each 3 seats in Sindhuli district.

Elections in Province no. 2 are to be held on September 2017. The Nepali Congress and the Madhesi parties wield a certain influence in the province and are likely to win a lot of seats in the next elections.

 

Further readings:

Mahendra Lawoti, Susan Hangen (2013) Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict in Nepal: Identities and Mobilization After 1990, Routledge

V. R. Raghavan (2013) Nepal as a Federal State: Lessons from Indian Experience, Vij Books India Pvt Ltd

John Whelpton (2005) A History of Nepal, Cambridge University Press

Gandaki

Embed from Getty Images

The administrative zone Gandaki is located in Central Nepal. Gandaki is composed of six districts: Manang, Gorkha, Lamjung, Kaski, Tanahu, and Syangja. Gandaki is part of the Western development region, which is mainly located on hills territories, except for the mountainous Manang district. Since the new constitution implemented in 2015, Nepal is a federal state divided into seven provinces. Gandaki zone is part of Province no. 4.

Demographics

1,549,857 people live in Gandaki. The most populated district is Kaski with 492,098 (236,385 men and 255,713 women) inhabitants. 323,288 (143,410 men and 179,878 women) people live in Tanahu; 289,148 (125,833 men and 163,315 women) people live in Syangja; 271,061 (121,041 men and 150,020 women) people live in Gorkha; 167,724 (75,913 men and 91,811 women) people live in Lamjung. Manang is the least populated district with 6,538 (3,661 men and 2,877 women) inhabitants.

Figures for the Gandaki administrative zone are not available, but the Central Bureau of Statistics of Nepal provides data for the widest Western development region of which Gandaki is part.

In 2015, in the Western development region, out of 4,926,765 people, 4,221,113 were Hindus, 402,411 were Buddhists, 219,971 were Muslims, and 53,747 were Christians (mainly living in Kaski district).

In 2010, the main ethnicities represented in the Western population were Chetree, Brahman and Magar with above 500,000 people from these descents respectively, and Tharu, Musalman, Kami and Gurung with above 200,000 people from these descents respectively.

The main languages spoken in 2010 were Nepali and Bhojpuri.

The literacy rate was 57.5 percent in 2008.  

 

Economics:

The Western development region, of which Gandaki is part, contributes a little to Nepal’s foreign trade. It accounts for 5.3 percent of Nepal’s exports and 14.84 percent of its imports.

In 2010, the mean income per household was 212,694 Nepalese Rupees and the mean income per capita was NRs 45,651.

The unemployment rate in 2010 was 2.2 percent.  

The poverty rate in 2008 was 22.25 percent.  

The Western development region is mainly agricultural. Out of 1,897,496 workers, 1,292,820 are employed in the agriculture sector, 88,882 in manufacturing, and 126,203 in wholesale and retail trade. 80.2 percent of households of the region were involved in agricultural activities in 2010. 70 percent of them cultivated paddy, 50.4 percent wheat and 73.2 percent maize.

In 2008, 45.1 percent of the population had migrated out of the region. This migration induced a large scope of remittances. In 2010, 66.6 percent of households received remittances. The share of remittances on their income was 32.4 percent.

Province no. 4, of which Gandaki is part, is rich in many natural resources. The glaciers are already exploited to provide electricity, but copper, iron, uranium and gold mines could also be a source of revenue for the province.

Gandaki will also know various infrastructures project which can enhance the economic results of the zone. Hydroelectric plants in Tanahu district are to be constructed and a new international airport is to be developed in Pokhara, in Kaski district.

 

Politics:

In the latest local elections, the Nepali Congress won a majority of seats in Province no. 4, with 44 seats compared to 34 for the Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist (CPN-UML). In the Gandaki zone, the CPN-UML won in Lamjung, Kaski, and Syangja districts, while the Nepali Congress won in Gorkha and Tanahu districts.

 

Further readings:

Mahendra Lawoti, Susan Hangen (2013) Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict in Nepal: Identities and Mobilization After 1990, Routledge

V. R. Raghavan (2013) Nepal as a Federal State: Lessons from Indian Experience, Vij Books India Pvt Ltd

John Whelpton (2005) A History of Nepal, Cambridge University Press

Mechi

The administrative zone Mechi is located in Eastern Nepal. It borders China and India. Mechi is composed of four districts: Jahpa, Ilam, Panchtar, and Taplejung. The capital is Ilam. Mechi is part of the Eastern development region. The zone spreads over Terai, Hill and Mountain territories. Since the new constitution implemented in 2015, Nepal is a federal state divided into seven provinces. Mechi is part of Province No. 1.

Demographics:

1,422,182 people live in Mechi. The most populated district is Jahpa with 812,650 (385,096 men and 427,554 women) inhabitants. 290,254 (141,126 men and 149,128 women) people live in Ilam, 191,817 (90,186 men and 101,631 women) people live in Panchtar, and 127,461 (60,552 men and 66,909 women) people live in Taplejung.  

Figures for the Mechi administrative zone are not available, but the Central Bureau of Statistics of Nepal provides data for the widest Eastern development region of which Mechi is part of.

In 2015, in the Eastern development region, out of 5,811,555 people, 4,144,556 were Hindus, 778,029 were Kirats, 458,296 were Buddhists, 267,159 were Muslims (mainly living in Jhapa disctrict) and 78,664 were Christians (mainly living in Jahpa district).

In 2010, the main ethnicities represented in the Eastern population were Chetree, Brahman, and Rai, with above 500,000 people from these descents respectively and Yadav and Limbu, with over 300,000 people from these descents respectively.  

The main languages spoken in 2010 were Nepali and Maithili.

The literacy rate was 57.2 percent in 2008.  

Economics:

The Eastern development region, of which Mechi is part, has a good economic activity compared to other Nepalese regions. It accounts for 38.4 percent of Nepal’s exports and 14.73 percent of its imports.

In 2010, the mean income per household was 182,326 Nepalese Rupees and the mean income per capita was NRs 37,818.

The unemployment rate in 2010 was 1.6 percent.  

The poverty rate in 2008 was 21.44 percent.  

The Eastern development region is mainly agricultural. Out of 2,284,280 workers, 1,493,778 are employed in the agriculture sector, 119,043 in manufacturing, and 138,169 in wholesale and retail trade. 79.9 percent of households of the region were involved in agricultural activities in 2010. 72.4 percent of them cultivated paddy, 49.3 percent maize, 40.6 percent wheat and 39.5 percent millet. Jhapa, Ilam and Panchtar districts are important tea producers.

In 2008, 14.4 percent of the population had migrated out of the region. This migration induced a large scope of remittances. In 2010, 56.4 percent of households received remittances. The share of remittances on their income was 29.3 percent.

Politics:

In the latest local elections, the Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist (CPN-UML) won a majority of seats in Province no. 1, with 69 seats compared to 51 for the Nepali Congress. In the Mechi zone, the CPN-UML won in Taplejung, Ilam and Jhapa districts, while the Nepali Congress won in Panchtar.

Unrests have been carried out by the Communist Party of Nepal in the four districts composing Mechi, to disrupt the elections process, with no success.  

Further readings:

Mahendra Lawoti, Susan Hangen (2013) Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict in Nepal: Identities and Mobilization After 1990, Routledge

V. R. Raghavan (2013) Nepal as a Federal State: Lessons from Indian Experience, Vij Books India Pvt Ltd

John Whelpton (2005) A History of Nepal, Cambridge University Press

Behri

The administrative zone Behri is located in Western Nepal. Behri is composed of five districts: Banke, Bardiya, Surkhet, Dailekh, and Jajarkot. Behri is part of the Mid-Western development region and its territories spread over the Hills and the Terai. Since the new constitution implemented in 2015, Nepal is a federal state divided into seven provinces. Behri has been divided in the process. Its districts are part of two different federal states: Province No. 6 for Surkhet, Dailekh, and Jajarkot districts and Province No. 5 for Banke and Bardiya districts.

Demographics:

1,702,767 people lived in Behri in 2015. 491,313 (244,255 men and 247,058 women) people lived in Banke; 426,576 (205,080 men and 221,496 women) people lived in Bardiya; 350,804 (169,421 men and 181,383 women) people lived in Surkhet; 261,770 (126,990 men and 134,780 women) people lived in Dailekh and 171,304 (85,537 men and 85,767 women) people lived in Jajarkot.

Figures for the Behri administrative zone are not available, but the Central Bureau of Statistics of Nepal provides data for the widest Mid-Western development region of which Behri is part of.

In 2015, in the Mid-Western region, 3,277,739 out of 3,546,682 people were Hindus, 98,824 were Buddhists, 112,815 were Muslims (living mainly in Banke districts) and 49,913 were Christians (living mainly in Surkhet district).  

In 2010, the largest ethnicities represented in the Mid-Western region were Cheetree with over a million people from this descent, and Magar, Taru and Kami with over 400,000 people from these descents respectively.  

The most spoken languages in the Mid-Western region are Nepali and Tharu.

The Mid-Western region literacy rate in 2008 was 52 percent.

Economics

Behri, as a part of the Mid-Western region, is mainly agricultural. Out of 1,325,261 workers, 972,936 are employed in the agriculture sector, 50,368 in manufacturing, and 66,737 in wholesale trade and retail. 88.6 percent of the households are involved in agricultural activities. 87.9 percent of households cultivate maize, 82.4 percent cultivate wheat, and 62.4% cultivate paddy.

The national parks of Bardiya and Banke attract tourists.

The Mid-Western development region is not well integrated to the economy of Nepal as it only accounts for 2.8 percent of Nepal’s exports and 2.67 percent of imports.

The unemployment rate in 2010 was 1.6 percent. The mean income per household was 159,868 Nepalese Rupees and the mean income per capita was of NRs 30,941.

The poverty rate in 2008 was 31.68 percent.

In 2008, 14.1 percent of the Mid-Western region’s population had emigrated out of the region. In 2010, 51.9 percent households were receiving remittances. These remittances represented a share on their income of 30.3 percent.

Politics:

In the latest general elections, the Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist (CPN-UML) won a short majority of seats in Province no. 6, with 27 seats compared to 25 for the Nepali Congress and the Maoist Kendra respectively. In Province no. 5 too, the CPN-UML won with 43 seats compared to 33 for the Nepali Congress and 19 for the Maoist Kendra.

In Province no. 6, CPN-UML won in Jajarkot and Dailekh. The Nepali Congress won in Surkhet.

In Province no. 5, CPN-UML won in Banke, but shared the wins in Bardiya with the Maoist Kendra.

The Rastriya Janata Party-Nepal holds sway in the Terai districts of Banke and Bardiya. The party has conducted unrest to disrupt the election process there, but has won no seats.  

Further readings:

Mahendra Lawoti, Susan Hangen (2013) Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict in Nepal: Identities and Mobilization After 1990, Routledge

V. R. Raghavan (2013) Nepal as a Federal State: Lessons from Indian Experience, Vij Books India Pvt Ltd

John Whelpton (2005) A History of Nepal, Cambridge University Press

Karnali

The administrative zone Karnali is located in North-Western Nepal. It is composed of five districts: Dolpa, Humla, Jumla, Kalikot, and Mugu. Its capital is Jumla. Karnali is part of the Mid-Western development region. Karnali is a large zone, representing 14.5 percent of Nepal’s territories. It is a mountainous and remote area, and it is also the most underdeveloped zone of Nepal. Since the new constitution implemented in 2015, Nepal is a federal state divided into seven provinces. Karnali is part of Province no. 6.

Demographics:

388, 713 people live in Karnali. The most populated districts are Kalikot with 136,948 (68,833 men and 68,115 women) inhabitants and Jumla with 108,921 (54,898 men and 54,023 women) inhabitants. 50,858 (25,833 men and 25,025 women) people live in Humla and 55,286 (28,025 men and 27,261 women) people live in Mugu. The least populated district is Dolpa with 36,700 (18,238 men and 18,462 women) inhabitants.

Figures for the Karnali administrative zone are not available, but the Central Bureau of Statistics of Nepal provides data for the widest Mid-Western development region of which Karnali is part of.

In 2015, in the Mid-Western development region, 3,546,682 out of 3,277,738 people were Hindus, 98,824 were Buddhists, 112,815 were Muslims and 49,913 were Christians.  

In 2010, the largest ethnicities represented in the Mid-Western region were Cheetree with over a million people from this descent, and Magar, Taru and Kami with over 400,000 people from these descents respectively.  

The most spoken languages  in the Mid-Western development region are Nepali and Tharu.

The Mid-Western development region literacy rate in 2008 was 52 percent.

Economics:

The Mid-Western development region of which Karnali is part of is mainly agricultural. Out of 1,325,261 workers, 972,936 are employed in the agriculture sector, 50,368 in manufacturing, and 66,737 in wholesale trade and retail. 88.6 percent of the households are involved in agricultural activities. 87.9 percent of these households mainly cultivate maize, 82.4 percent cultivate wheat and 62.4 cultivate  paddy. While households from the Mid-Western region grow paddy, Karnali is particular for being mountainous, thus paddy cannot be cultivated there. Karnali’s farmers also cultivate fruits.

The districts of Humla, Mugu and Dolpa attract tourists for their trekking activities.

The Mid-Western development region is not well integrated to the economy of Nepal. It only accounts for 2.8 percent of Nepal’s exports and 2.67 of its imports.

The unemployment rate in 2010 was 1.6 percent. The mean income per household was of 159,868 Nepalese Rupees and the mean income per capita was of 30,941 NRs.

the poverty rate in 2008 was 31.68 percent.

In 2008, 14.1 percent of the Mid-Western region’s population had emigrated out of the region. In 2010, 51.9 percent of households were receiving remittances. These remittances represented a share on their income of 30.3 percent.

In 2015, the Parliamentary Development Committee published a report on Karnali’s future and recommended measures. To develop, Karnali needs better road networks. The zone, thanks to the Karnali river, is rich in water resources and hydro-power plants could be built there. Efforts should be made to improve the sectors of horticulture and tourism, which present an economic potential.

Politics:

Karnali has a strong political identity. The region used to be an independent state until the unification of Nepal. The Maoist held a strong sway there.

During the political process leading to the new constitution and the creation of provinces, concerns have been raised as for Karnali’s fate. Karnali was first supposed to be part of a province along with the zones of the Far-Western development region. After protests, another province was formed to separate Karnali from them. Karnali is now part of Province no. 6. New complaints were made as for the future provincial capital. Karnali’s inhabitants wanted the provincial capital to be located in Karnali while the central government has chosen Birendranagar, in Surkhet district, as the capital. Karnali’s inhabitants fear to be ostracised in this new province.

In the latest local elections, the Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist (CPN-UML) won a short majority of seats in Province no.6, with 27 seats compared to 25 for the Nepali Congress and the Maoist Kendra respectively. In the Karnali zone, the Maoist Kendra won in Kalikot and Humla districts, the Nepali Congress won in Jumla and Mugu, and the CPN-UML won in Dolpa.

Further readings:

Mahendra Lawoti, Susan Hangen (2013) Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict in Nepal: Identities and Mobilization After 1990, Routledge

V. R. Raghavan (2013) Nepal as a Federal State: Lessons from Indian Experience, Vij Books India Pvt Ltd

John Whelpton (2005) A History of Nepal, Cambridge University Press