Odisha, formerly Orissa, is located along the eastern coast of India. The state is surrounded by West Bengal to the north-west, Jharkhand to the north, Chhattisgarh to the west and north-west, and Andhra Pradesh to the south and south-west. The state of Orissa was established in 1936 as a province of British India. In 2011, the state’s name was changed from Orissa to Odisha, and the name of the language from Oria to Odia. The capital of Odisha is Bhubaneswar.


The majority of the population in Odisha follow Hinduism (93.63%), followed by Christianity (2.77%). Other religions that are practiced include Islam, Jainism, Sikhism, and Buddhism. According to a 2011 census, out of the total population in the state, around 16.69% live in urban regions. In the last ten years, the urban population has increased by close to 17%. The average literacy rate in Odisha stood at 85.75%, in which males were 90.72% literate while female literacy stood at 74.31%.


Between 2004-05 and 2015-15, Odisha witnessed high growth rates, with the gross state domestic product (GSDP) expanding at a compound annual rate of 11.5%. The state has emerged as a key leader in the mineral and metal based industries. Other key industries include iron, steel, and aluminum production. Odisha is the first state in India to have undertaken reforms in the power sector. According to a study by the World Bank, the state ranks 7th in regards to the ease of doing business and reform implementation. 






The government of Odisha consists of the executive, judiciary, and legislative branch. The governor of Odisha is Dr. S.C. Jamir, and is appointed by the President of India. The Chief Minster is Naveen Patnaik, and is the head of the government. Bhubaneswar houses the Vidhan Sabha, or the Legislative Assembly, and the secretariat. The Vidhan Shaba is unicameral and consists of 147 members of the legislative assembly (MLA).

Suggested Readings:

Make in Odisha: Make in States of India by Nirmala Teiva

Orissa: Its Geography, Statistics, History, Religion, and Antiquities by Andrew Sterling and James Peggs