Tamil Nadu is located in Southernmost part Indian peninsular. The name Tamil Nadu literally translates to the Land of the Tamils. The official state language is Tamil, which is also one of the oldest classical languages. It’s neighbouring states are Karnataka, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh, and the Union Territory of Puducherry. It shares a maritime border with Sri Lanka. There are 32 districts and Chennai (previously known as Madras) is the capital of Tamil Nadu. It is also the largest city in the state. The area of the state is 130,060 km2. It has the second largest economy and one of the fastest growing states in India.
According to the Indian Census 2011 the total population in Tamil Nadu is 7.2 Crores, a crore more than its population in 2001 which was 6.24 Crores. The total population is 72147030, out of which 36137975 are men and 36009055 are female. The total percentage of literacy 80.09 percent; male literacy is 86.77 percent and female literacy is 73.44 percent.
Image : Population growth 2001 - 2011 (Census 2011)
48.40 percent of the population live in urban regions and 51.6 percent live in rural regions. Chennai, the capital, is the most populated urban region with a population of 4,646,732. 87.58 percent of population in Tamil Nadu is Hindu making them the majority. Religious minority populations include 6.12 percent Christians, 5.86 percent Muslims, 0.12 percent Jains, 0.02 percent Sikhs, 0.02 percent Buddhists, and 0.01 percent following other religions. The total Scheduled Caste population is 1,44,38,445 and the Scheduled Tribe population 7,94,697.
According to UNICEF, Tamil Nadu is one of the more progressive Indian states and ranks third is social and economic factors. In the recent years the state has adopted several policies that are women and child friendly.
Tamil Nadu is the second largest state economy in India and the second largest industrial state after Maharashtra.In the year 2013-2014, Tamil Nadu’s manufacturing sector grew 3.53 percent, which was way above the Indian state average of 0.71 percent. In 2014-2015, the state contributed 7.9 percent to the country's overall Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Tamil Nadu’s gross state domestic product (GSDP) for 2014-2015 was US. $161.1 billion and the net state domestic product (NSDP) for the same period was at US$ 146 billion. The unemployment rate in Tamil Nadu, according to the Economic Survey 2012-2013, was 47 per 1000.
Tamil Nadu had been ranked first by the Economic Freedom Rankings for the States of India for years 2005 and 2009, and ranked second after Gujarat for years 2011 and 2013. The state has a network of about 113 industrial parks, and additional plots with supporting infrastructure.
According to a leading Indian newspaper, Foreign Direct Investment into Tamil Nadu has doubled in the last four years. FDI from 2000 to 2011 was $6.8 billion, in the last four years total FDI has been $12 billion. The last year has seen an increase in FDI of 70 percent from the previous year. Furthermore, Tamil Nadu is in a strategic location for trade and is easily connected to other countries. It is the only Indian state with 4 international airports. It’s long coastline is home to 4 major ports that make an important trading location.
Political Parties :
Last year, Jayalalithaa, the leader of the political party All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) became the Chief Minister of the state. In 1991, AIADMK along with Congress won elections in the state making Jayalalithaa the Chief Minister for the first time, and then the second woman chief minister in the country. For a brief period in 1998, AIADMK broke away from Congress and aligned with Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). The current Chief Minister Jayalalithaa has been the chief minister four times before the last election.
Currently the two major political parties in Tamil Nadu are All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) and Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK). AIADMK translates to Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam. This party is currently in power in Tamil Nadu and it is the third largest party in the Lok Sabha (House of the People). Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK), which translates to Dravidian Progress Federation is also a state political party that has been in power in the past. Other political parties have in the past and continue to play a role in the state's political dynamics including Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam (DMDK), Pattali Makkal Katchi (PMK), Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (MDMK), and National parties such as the Congress and Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).
The results of the 2016 state elections, which came out on May 19, 2016, are as follows:
Image source: http://www.ndtv.com/elections
Census India 2011 (Gov)