Chittagong is geographically the largest division (zila or bibagh) of Bangladesh and was formed in 1984 out of 11 districts, including the port city of Chittagong after which it is named. It shares its borders with Dhaka, Sylhet and Barisal as well as Myanmar and the Indian states of Mizoram and Tripura. Three major rivers run through Chittagong: Karnafuli, Halda and Sangu.
Chittagong has a population of 7.6 million, of which 54.3% are literate. Primary education, especially of girls, received a major boost under nationwide Education For All (EFA) policies. 86.9% of the population identifies as Muslim, 11% as Hindu and 1.5% as Buddhist. The entire division is serviced by only 205 union health centers, with 41 of those concentrated in the city of Chittagong alone.
Chittagong is a key trading hub for Bangladesh, with 75% of the country’s total export and 80% of its total imports passing through it. Its economy constitutes 12% of the GDP of Bangladesh at $25.5 billion. Key industries include garments, textiles, electric and electronic goods, leather goods and shipbuilding.
Chittagong Division is governed by the Divisional Commissioner; the office is currently held by Mohammed Ruhul Amin. Chittagong city is governed by the Chittagong City Corporation. It is headed by the current mayor Abu Jahed Mohammed Nasir Uddin, general secretary of the Awami League. The Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) consisting of Khagrachari, Rangamati and Bandarban were the site of an insurgent movement, led by the Parbattya Chattragram Jono Samhati Samitee (PCJSS). Its key grievances were against the state’s feudal practices, against the erasure of their culture, inadequate facilities for education and other social services as well as displacement in light of the Karnafuli irrigation project. The conflict came to an end with the signing of a Peace Accord on December 2, 1997 between the Bangladesh government and the PCJSS. The PJCSS has since fractured into a number of political parties that remain active in the hill tracts.
Amena Mohsin, The Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh: On the Difficult Road to Peace (Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2003)
Structural Roots of Violence in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bhumitra Chakma Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 45, No. 12 (March 20-26, 2010): pp. 19-21